EXTENDED SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASE (ESBL) SCREENING OF Klebsiella spp FROM POULTRY, MARKET AND HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT IN ABAKALIKI
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasing in prevalence worldwide, it varies according to geographic locations and is directly linked to the use and misuse of antibiotics (Canton et al., 2008). ESBLs confer resistance to most beta-lactam antibiotics, including 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th generation cephalosporins, and Aztreonam but not the Cephamycin or Carbapenems and are inhibited by beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid. ESBL are often located on plasmids that are transferable from strain to strain and between bacterial species. Although initially ESBL production was mainly observed in hospital infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, today it is also frequently associated with community-acquired infections, mostly urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli.
Musca domestica is found in almost every Nigerian environment including residential areas, poultry farms, and marketplaces. Houseflies (Musca domestica) have been considered important agents in the dissemination of numerous infectious diseases. The behavioral characteristics of M. domestica and its variants, ensure its contact with food and detritus of man and his animals and provide an opportunity to disseminate pathogenic microorganisms. Isolation of various bacteria including Klebsiella spp. has been reported from hospital houseflies by various investigators.
There are not much information on distribution and the source of these bacteria in places like poultry farm, market, and household environment where houseflies which are their major agents of dissemination are easily found. However, there appears to be substantial geographic variation in the proportion of persons being affected by Klebsiella spp. which connotes that its distribution across different environments varies, there is now a need for an enhanced study on the prevalence of Klebsiella spp. at the environments of interest.
Klebsiella pneumoniae, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family of gram-negative bacilli, is part of the normal microbiome of many humans. Many reports have suggested that patients with diabetes are at a high risk of K. pneumonia infections (Stoeckle et al., 2008; Hsu et al, 2009), possibly because of impairment of bacterial phagocytosis in patients with diabetes (Hsu et al., 2009). In recent years, it has become clear that Klebsiella has caused many infections in different cases. Invasive infections caused by K. pneumoniae have been associated with comorbidities such as cancer, diabetes, and previous organ transplantation (Meatherall et al., 2009; Wang et al., 1990). The importance of this group of organisms to cause a serious infection in patients admitted to the hospital is well understood (Gomez-Simmonds et al., 2015). The ability of this organism to cause disease due to decreased host defense from long and complex surgeries, as well as consumption of different drugs, is growing (Azimi et al., 2012). The drug resistance among the gram-negative bacteria is present as a serious global problem (Gniadkowski, 2001). ESBLs are the important members of beta-lactamases produced mainly by gram-negative bacteria (Haque & Salam, 2010) and are responsible for mediating resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactam, aztreonam (El-Baky et al., 2013). These enzymes are commonly detected in the members of the Enterobacteriaceae like Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli. ESBL-producing bacteria do not show resistance only to penicillin, most cephalosporins, and aztreonam but also to other classes of antibiotics such as aminoglycosides, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and fluoroquinolones (Colodner, 2005). Further, the easy transmission of the ESBLs coding plasmids between species has become a major threat in places where there are crowds and decaying matter with the aid of some agents like house flies (Musca domestica).
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
This work was aimed at screening for the prevalence of Klebsiella spp. in the body wash of houseflies collected from poultry farm, market and residential environments.
The objectives of this work include to;
- Isolate and characterize Klebsiella spp in the body wash of houseflies from poultry farm, market and residential house environment.
- Determine the prevalence of Klebsiella spp in the body wash of houseflies from poultry farm, market and residential house environment.
- Determine the antibiotics susceptibility and resistance pattern of Klebsiella spp
Screen for the presence of extended beta-lactamases in the Klebsiella spp isolated.
In recent years house flies (Musca domestica) have been recognized as a potential agent to mechanically transport pathogenic bacteria. One of the objectives of this present study was to address the question of what type of bacteria are likely to be transported by house flies. The result from our study demonstrated that all house flies are capable of carrying at least one type of bacteria, example of bacteria they transport includes; Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella species. The major study area where the house flies were isolated includes poultry farm, marketplace, and residential homes.
Specifically, from my study of Klebsiella species isolated from house flies I observed that house flies (Musca domestica) collected from Market environments carried a significantly higher number of Klebsiella spp than those flies collected from Poultry farms and Residential homes. Overall, out of 150 samples (50 each from Poultry farms, Market place, and Residential homes) analyzed; a total of 14 (20.6%), 35 (51.5%), and 19 (27.9%) isolates of Klebsiella spp were respectively isolated from Poultry farm, Market place and Residential homes bringing them to a total of 68 isolates (Table 1).
According to the results, Klebsiella species are more prevalent in-house flies from Marketplace (35), followed by its prevalence at Residential homes (19) and Poultry farms (14).
The result from Table 2 of the antibiotic susceptibility and resistant pattern of Klebsiella isolated from the body wash of house flies (Musca domestica) from Poultry farm showed that the highest susceptibility of the isolate was recorded against Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim with 6 (42.8 %), above other antibiotics which includes Ciprofloxacin with 4(28.57 %), Nalidixic acid with 3(21.42), Ceftazidine with 2(14.3), and Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with 1(7.1), but they were not susceptible to Erthapenem, Cefoxitin, Cefotetan, Gentamycin, Penicillin, Cefotaxime, and Aztreonem. The isolates were 100 % resistant by 14(100%) each to Cefoxitin, Cefotetan, Penicillin, Erthapenem, Cefotaxime, and Aztreonem. Above other antibiotics which includes;Amoxicillin with 13(92.8), Ceftaxidine with 12(85.7), Nalidixic acid with 11(78.6), Gentamycin with 28(71.8), Ciprofloxacin with 10(71.4) and Sulfumethoxazole-trimethoprim with 8(57.1) resistance respectively.
Result from Table 3 of the antibiotics susceptibility and resistant pattern of Klebsiella isolated from the body wash of house flies from marketplace showed that the highest susceptibility of the isolates was recorded against Gentamycin with 14(40%), above other antibiotics which includes Ciprofloxacin with 13(37.1%), Nalidixic acid with 3(8.6%), Ceftazidime with 2(5.37) and Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim with 1(2.9%) respectively. Erthapenem, doripenem, penicillin, ceftazidime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid, cefotaxime, aztreonem and cefotetam showed no susceptibility. The isolates were 100 % resistant by 35 (100 %) each to Erthapenem, Doripenem, Penicillin, Amoxicillin clavulanic acid, Cefotaxime, Aztreonam and Cefotetam above the following antibiotics; Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim 34(97.1 %), Ceftazidine 33(94.3%), Nalidixic acid with 32(91.4%) Ciprofloxacin with 22(62.9%), and Gentamycin with 21(60%) resistance.
The result from Table 4 of the antibiotics susceptibility and resistant pattern of Klebsiella isolated from the body wash of house flies from Marketplace showed that the highest susceptibility of the isolates was recorded against Ciprofloxacin with 19 (100%) above Doripenem with 12 (63.2%), Gentamycin with 9 (47.36 %), Nalidixic acid with 2 (10.6%) and 1 (5.3%) each to Ceftazidime, Ertapenem, and Amoxicilin- Clavulanic acid respectively. While Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, Cefotetan, Penicillin, Cefotaxime, and Aztreonem showed no susceptibility. The isolates were 100 % resistant by 19 (100 %) each to Penicillin, Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, Aztreonam and Cefotaxime. The isolates were also 100% resistant by 14 (100%) to Cefotetan, followed by 18 (94.8 %) resistant to Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid,18 (94.7%) resistant to Ertapenem,18 (94.7%) resistant to Ceftaxidine, 17 (89.4%) resistant to Nalidixic acid, 10 (52.6%) resistant to Gentamycin, and 7 (36.8%) resistant to Doripenem.
Furthermore, out of 68 isolates of Klebsiella species screened for ESBL production from Poultry farms, Marketplace, and Residential homes.
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