Effect of X-ray radiation


Okro is an economically important vegetable crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. It is suitable for cultivation on a large commercial farm. This study aimed to determine the effects of X-ray radiation concentrations on germination, development, and yield.  The okra seeds were collected from the Abakpa market in Abakaliki, Ebonyi, and were taken to Veramax Laboratory in Abakaliki. They were exposed to the X-ray concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mAs before being transferred to the field environment for planting.  Ridges were made and manure was mixed with sand in a ratio of 3:1. The measurement of some parameters was taken at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks for different doses. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of variation among different concentrations of X-ray. This experiment which determined the effect of X-ray radiation concluded that germination, development, and yield of okra using these parameters recorded on the field, affects genetics, thereby causing variation in the parameter determined.


Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is an economically important vegetable crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. It is suitable for cultivation on a large commercial farm (Ambli and Mullainathan, 2014). It is grown commercially in many countries such as India, Nigeria, Turkey, Iran, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Brazil, Ghana, Ethiopia, and the Southern United States etc. According to Sajid et al., (2013), depending on the region, this crop has several uses which includes its benefit for pregnant women, heart health and blood sugar control, and anti-cancer properties.  And effect of X-ray radiation could be beneficial, thereby helping in improving the plant.

Fresh green pods and leaves are used in cooking for seasoning and flavoring or are eaten as a vegetable. Immature pods are steamed, fried, pickled, or canned. Fresh okra pod is an excellent source of vitamins A and C, and calcium (Gnanamurthy et al., 2013). It also contains carbohydrates, potassium, magnesium, and other vitamins at a significant level (De Carvalho et al., 2011). The seed of okra is a good source of protein and oil. The protein content of okra seeds is up to 45% after oil extraction (Atodariya et al., 2013) and its oil can be a good substitute for cotton seed oil (Jadhav et al., 2012).

Okra plant has a rapid growth cycle, is easily cultivated, may show resistance to pests, and has high nutritional value (Satpute and Fultambkar, 2012). However, there is not much variation in okra and most of the available varieties have low yield and also are sensitive to diseases such as yellow vein mosaic virus, Cercospora leaf spot, fusarium wilt, etc (Talebi et al., 2012). This inadvertently affects the germination, development, and yield of okra with attendant economic and nutritional consequences. To overcome this challenge, okra has to be transformed into varieties with high potential for great yield and resistance to the said diseases. This transformation may come by way of mutation (Warghat et al., 2011).


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A mutation is a sudden heritable change in the DNA of living cells, which is neither caused by genetic segregation nor genetic recombination (Smielowski 2013). Spontaneous mutations frequently occur in nature. (Smielowski, 2013) reported that in the eukaryotic genome, a mutation occurs every 10 – 8 base pairs per generation. Mutation could be artificially induced by specific physical and chemical agents called mutagens (Smielowski, 2013). To improve certain traits in existing germplasm, the induced mutation as an important tool has been established. Following the discovery of the mutagenic effects of X-ray by Muller (Satpute, and Fultambkar, 2012), it has been employed in plant breeding. X-ray is a popular mutagenic and carcinogenic organic compound that generates random mutations in genetic content through nucleotide substitution. This mutagenic radiation is one of the most effective and powerful mutagens (Warghat et al., 2011) that only produces point mutations (Smielowski, 2013).

In determining the effect of X-ray radiation, the frequency and type of produced mutations depend on the plant species or varieties, the dosage of mutagen, and the situation of the plant before, during, and after the induction (Pushparajan, et al., 2014). So, it is possible that X-ray can be used to cause mutation in okra to produce successful species (Jagajanantham et al., 2013).

It is also possible that X-ray exposure can cause adverse effects that may compromise the success of okra species (Jadhav et al., 2012). To have species of okra that have mutated into desirable species, it is therefore very important to explore knowledge about the effect of X-ray on okra plants under varying X-ray dosages. Against this background the present work aimed to investigate the effect of X-ray radiation concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 MAS) on germination and seedling growth of okra.

Effect of X-ray radiation


The study aimed to determine the effects of X-ray radiation concentrations on germination, development, and yield of okra.





The objectives of the study are to determine the effect of different doses of X-ray on:

  1. germination of seeds of okra
  2. survival of seedlings of okra
  3. development of okra
  4. yield of okra
Experimental Site

The field experiment was carried out at the experiential field research farm for the Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki which lies at latitude (6041N) and longitude (8061E) in the derived savannah of the southeast agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. It has a mean annual rainfall of 1700 -1800 mm. The rainfall pattern is bimodal between April-July and September – November with a short spell in August. According to (Ofomata, 1995), the minimum and maximum temperatures of the area are between 270 C and 310 C respectively. The relative humidity of the area is between 40 – 80%. The soil belongs to the order Ultisol and is classified as typic Haplustalt (FDALR 1985).


The materials used during the research include a cutlass for clearing the field, tape for measurement of the experimental site, and also the measurement of distances between holes.  Hoe for making ridges, okra seeds exposed to x-ray, non-exposed okra seed, organic manure which was used in the field, and paint were also used to indicate different types of replicate of exposures of okra.

The exposure of okra to x-ray in different concentrations with beam focus: 90cm maximum quantity of charge 45cm, pressure: 81kvs, and area of the beam aperture: 400cm

Sample Collection

The samples of this study were collected from okra seed sellers in the Abakpa market in Abakaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.  The seeds were x-rayed at Veramax Ultrasound and X-ray Laboratory at no 19 Leach Street off Water Works Road Abakaliki. After which, the seeds were sowed at Ebonyi State University Abakaliki.


The research was conducted between the months of July to September.  The land was cleared and ridges were made with the use of cutlass and hoe, the length and width of the distance of the seeds were measured per hole with the use of tape. The seeds were x-rayed at concentrations 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mAs. Each treatment was replicated 5 times and monitored for germination, development, and yield readings, respectively.

Parameter Determined

Parameters measured include; Number of the leaves, shoot length, leaf length, leaf width, viability, and days before germination.

Data Analysis

The data generated were statistically analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) as described by (Steel and Torie 1980).


This experiment which determined effect of X-ray radiation concentrations showed that germination, development, and yield of okra using the parameters recorded on the field affect genetics, thereby causing variation in the okra seed used. Finally, the area in which the seedlings were planted contributed to the mutation which was determined by different doses and periods that were used on the parameters.




    1. Thanks a lot for the interest shown in the work… The Okro was exposed to different ranges, the one exposed to smaller ranges caused minor mutation while the one exposed to extreme mutation caused extreme effects. Just one range expressed better than unexposed seeds. The one with extreme exposure range had challenge germinating. Only the lower ranges germinated at averagely similar time with unexposed seeds.

      Thanks dear


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